Some causes of jaundice due to obstruction (blockage) include:
Cancers that start in the head of the pancreas are near the common bile duct. These cancers can press on the duct and cause jaundice while they are still fairly small, which can sometimes lead to these tumors being found at an early stage. But cancers that start in the body or tail of the pancreas don’t press on the duct until they have spread through the pancreas. By this time, the cancer has often spread beyond the pancreas as well.
There are many other causes of jaundice in newborns that include:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including and ibuprofen, can interfere with liver function and may cause jaundice if they are taken at high doses for a long period of time. Large doses of can also cause jaundice.
If the mother’s blood group is different from her baby then in the absence of right medication her antibodies can attack and kill baby’s cells causing jaundice. A diabetic mother can also cause jaundice to her neonate. Children affected with Polycythemia are also prone to have jaundice. Polycythemia is a condition in which the baby is born with excess amount of RBCs in the body.
Once hemoglobin is in the red cells of the blood, it circulates for the life span of those cells. The hemoglobin that is released when the cells die is turned into bilirubin. If for any reason the RBCs die at a faster rate than usual, bilirubin can accumulate in the blood and cause jaundice.Liver diseases of all kinds threaten the organ's ability to keep up with bilirubin processing. Starvation, circulating infections, certain medications, hepatitis, and cirrhosis can all cause hepatic jaundice, as can certain hereditary defects of liver chemistry, including Gilbert's syndrome and Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Hepatic causes include acute hepatitis, hepatotoxicity and alcoholic liver disease. Less common causes include primary biliary cirrhosis, Gilbert's syndrome and metastatic carcinoma. Jaundice commonly seen in the newborn baby is another example of hepatic jaundice.Pre-hepatic (or hemolytic) jaundice is caused by anything which causes an increased rate of haemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells). In tropical countries, malaria can cause jaundice in this manner. Certain genetic diseases, such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency can lead to increase red cell lysis and therefore hemolyic jaundice. Defects in bilirubin metabolism also present as jaundice.The goal of the clinical evaluation is to identify the root cause for jaundice. Fortunately, in most cases, obstructive jaundice can be treated with intravenous fluids, antibiotics and, if necessary, surgical removal of the obstruction. Any type of obstruction that blocks the flow of bile from the liver can cause obstructive jaundice. Most commonly, gallstones create the blockage. Other causes of obstruction include inflammation, tumors, trauma, pancreatic cancer, narrowing of the bile ducts, and structural abnormalities present at birth.Jaundice is not an illness but a medical condition or sign of an underlying problem with the liver, pancreas, or gallbladder. Infections, use of certain drugs, cancer, blood disorders, gallstones, birth defects, inherited conditions, and a number of other medical conditions can cause jaundice. In general, the causes of jaundice may fall into one of three main categories:Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes, and body fluids due to an increase in the amount of in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment and byproduct of the natural daily breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs). Red blood cells typically survive for about 120 days before the body breaks them down, forming bilirubin in the process. The blood transports bilirubin to the liver, where bilirubin is and excreted in the . Bile is a thick, yellow-green-brown fluid that is secreted into the upper small intestine () to eliminate waste products (such as bilirubin and excess cholesterol) and to aid in the digestion of fats. Disruption of this normal metabolism and/or the overproduction of bilirubin may cause jaundice.Other symptoms depend on the cause of jaundice. If a fever or flu-like illness comes before jaundice, it's usually a sign of a viral hepatitis infection. Brown urine, common in hepatitis, is generally a sign of poor liver function or increased red blood cell destruction. The body is trying to get rid of excess bilirubin in the urine. Pale, white, or clay-coloured stool, on the other hand, is an indicator of obstruction in the gallbladder or bile ducts. Many people with obstruction due to gallstones experience abdominal pain, while those with obstruction due to tumours usually have painless jaundice.Too much bilirubin can be toxic and can cause jaundice. Therefore, it's important to eliminate it from the body as fast as it's produced. There are three basic ways this process can go wrong:Your doctor will take a medical history and perform a physical exam. Your doctor will ask how suddenly the jaundice came on, what other symptoms accompanied it, and how the stool and urine look. A blood sample will also be taken and checked for hepatitis virus antibodies, abnormal red blood cells, bilirubin levels, and various other substances that give clues about liver function. Your doctor may also order other tests such as an ultrasound or biopsy to determine the cause of jaundice.